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Cooperatives and social economy

This section offers articles and information dealing with self help organisations and processes e.g. cooperatives of all types, credit unions, friendly societies, building societies, mutuals, economic associations and informal groups.

The term cooperative means an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise.

An enterprise is an organisation that commercially provides products or services in a competitive market place.

The Social Economy can be defined as that part of the economy which is neither private nor public, but consists of constituted organisations, with voluntary members and boards of directors or management committees, undertaking activities for local benefit. Organisations may or may not allocate profit in the form of dividend. The social economy includes four interrelated sectors -

bulletvoluntary associations, and
bulletcharitable foundations and trusts

Below are two sets of articles dealing in turn with
(a) cooperatives and (b) the social economy


Johnston Birchall, 2006 The role of co-operatives in poverty alleviation
Hagen Henry, 2005 Guidelines for Cooperative Legislation
UN, 2006 Cooperatives at Work
Edgar Parnell, 1992 A New Look at Cooperatives and Their Role in Developing Countries
Chuck Hassebrook, 2005 The Social Mission of Farm Cooperatives in the US
Alana Albee and K D Reid (1993) Women and Urban Credit in Sri Lanka
PACC (1995) Working Principles for Enhancing Africa's Cooperative Economy
Johnston Birchall (2003) Rediscovering the Cooperative Advantage
ICMIF (1992) Co-operative Principles and their Social Economy Equivalents
DFID (2005) Cooperatives, Growth, Poverty Reduction and Community Well-being
ICA (1995) Statement of Cooperative Identity
ICA Five Good Reasons for Co-operatives
ESC UN (2001) Guidelines aimed at creating a supportive environment for the development of cooperatives


  Dot Coop
IDM (2004) It's a Fair Co-op
Cooperatives UK Magazine (2004) Fair Trade - A Cooperative Revolution
Patrick Develtere and Ignace Pollet, (2005) Cooperatives and Fair-Trade
Nandasiri Gamage et al (2004) Sri Lanka Women's Development Services Cooperative Society Ltd
Betsy Bowman & Bob Stone (2004) Cooperativization as Alternative to Globalizing Capitalism
Ian MacPherson (1999) Hands Around The Globe - The International Credit Union Movement


ICA (2005) ICA Response to Tsunami
ILC (2002) Promotion of Cooperatives Recommendation (2002)
ILO (2002) Revival of the Cooperative Idea
Jim Robertson (2001) Thinking beyond the private sector- Mondragon Cooperative Group
Jim Cawley et al (1994) The Role of Co-operatives in Enterprise Development
Ignace Pollet and Patrick Develtere (2004) Cooperatives and Development - Action speaks louder than words
Ignace Pollet and Patrick Develtere (2004) Development Co-operation: How Cooperatives Cope


Hans-Detlef Wulker (1995) Cooperative Principles
Joseph Stiglitz (2004) The Role of Cooperatives in Globalisation
Ronnie Morris (2004) Thandi blazes trail for cooperative land reform
UN (2001) Cooperatives in Social Development - Resolution No 56/114 adopted by the United Nations General Assembly
Wilda M. Vanek (2001) Italian Social Cooperatives
Sanjay Kumar Verma (2004) Cooperative Centenary in India
John Goodman (2003) Important Recommendations for Co-operatives

Social Economy

SSEC Bigger, Better, Bolder: Social enterprise solutions for Scotland
BSA, 2001 The Case for Building Societies
BSA, 2001 The History of Building Societies in the UK
  European Union Definition and Statement on the Importance of Social Economy Enterprises
John Pearce, 2005 The Future of Social Enterprise in the UK
Charles Leadbeater, 2007 What are the future scenarios for social enterprise?


Muhammad Yunus, 2006 Social Business Entrepreneurs Are the Solution
Dr Cathy Sharp, 2004 Social Glue - The importance of bonding and bridging social capital for social enterprises.
Alana Albee (1994) Support to Women's Productive and Income-Generating Activities
Alana Albee (1994) Participatory Strategic Planning for Community Enterprises
Bank of England (2003) The Financing of Social Enterprises in the UK
Graham Boyd (2005) The Cargo Cult Alive and Well in the Scottish Highlands
Malcolm Lynch (2004) For and Against the Community Interest Company


Graham Boyd (2003) Community Enterprise Companies
Ian MacPherson (1999) The Mission, Beliefs and Operating Principles of Credit Unions
Jonathan Dawson (2004) A tale of two ecovillages - Reviving the health of local communities
David G Green (1993) Mutual Aid - The Evolution of Friendly Societies in Britain
Malcolm Lynch (2004) Time to Reform IPS Legislation
Jerr Boschee and Jim McClurg (2003) Towards a Better Understanding of Social Entrepreneurship
Antonia Swinson (2004) Following the trail of a new animal


Alan Tuffs (2003) Local Control, Local Solutions
Jonathan Michie (2005) Our mutual friends
Cliff Mills (2001) Ownership Matters - New Mutual Business Models
Malcolm Lynch (2004) Entrepreneurs or Banks?
Peter Kellner (1998) The seven pillars of mutualism
Malcolm Hornsby and Mervyn Wilson (1997) Member-Owners - Guide to Societies based on the principle of Mutuality
Nexus (1994) Support to Community Development Financial Institutions in the USA


Ann Cor Evans (1997) PEARLS - Tool for Financial Stabilisation, Monitoring and Evaluation
Brian Branch and Christopher Baker  (1998) Credit Union Governance - Unique Challenges
Helen Seymour and John Goodman (2002) Making sure more is better
John Pearce (2003) Search for the Social Formula
Kathryn Parker and Andrew Passey (2003) The Financing of Social Enterprises
World of Work (2004) Labour-sponsored Solidarity Funds in Quebec are generating jobs
Nandasiri Gamage Real Voices in Development - a hundred stories of Women's Bank members (Sri Lanka)


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George Clark (2003) A plain language guide to the Social Economy
George Clark (2003) What is economics about?
George Clark (2003) How big is the social economy?
Graham Boyd (1994) The Urban Social Economy Sector
Prof. S. Tilakarantna (1993) Social Banking to Meet Needs of the Poor
George Clark The Voluntary and the Unvoluntary Sectors
George Clark (1999) Community-led Organisations - Why and How?

in solidarity with The  Women's Development Services Cooperative Society Ltd (Women's Bank)
Sri Lanka