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Not-for-Profit Landowning Organisations in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland

Sector Review 2001

Andy Wightman and Graham Boyd, April 2001

Contents

bulletIntroduction
bulletWhat are Not-for-Profit Organisations?
bulletWho are the Not-for-Profit Landowning Organisations?
bulletChanges Since 1996
bulletKey Characteristics
bulletLegal Status: Objectives: Scale: Landownership
bulletContextual Changes since 1996
bulletSector Development: Broader Developments: Focus on Management: A Re-evaluation of History
bulletThe Future
bulletSummary of Key NfP Landowning Features in Table Format
bulletLegal Structure and Charitable Status
bulletMembership Levels and Financial Turnover
bulletLand Ownership
bulletAcknowledgements
bulletReferences
bulletFurther Information

INTRODUCTION

In December 1996 a paper was prepared profiling the range of not-for-private-profit (NfP) organisations in the Highlands and Islands that owned, leased, or aspired to own or lease land (Wightman, 1996). This paper reviews the 1996 findings and updates these to take account of recent developments in the NfP sector. The following chart summarises and compares the key changes in the NfP profiles:

1996 NfP Profile

2001 NfP Profile

23 organisations comprising some 1.25 million members and supporters UK-wide generating 85 million of annual turnover UK-wide owning, leasing or managing 544,388 acres (5.44% of the Highlands and Islands)   46 organisations comprising some 1.38 million members and supporters UK-wide generating some 99 million of annual turnover UK-wide owning, leasing or managing 658,308 acres of land (6.58% of the Highlands & Islands)

Summary of Key Changes 1996 - 2001

bullet18 new NfP organisations the majority of which are community-based organisations
bulletmembers and supporters UK-wide increased by some 130,000
bulletannual turnover UK-wide increased by some 14 million
bulletan additional 113,920 acres brought into NfP ownership/management – a 21 percent increase.

WHAT ARE NFP ORGANISATIONS?

Not-for-private-profit (NfP) organisations are bodies set up to pursue social, environmental, economic and democratic aims for a defined constituency of people. They have been around for over 150 years and can trace their origins back to the Chartist, Co-operative and Friendly Society movements of the mid-19th century. Their aim is to bring social benefit to their members either through economic activity or collective action. They range from local community associations, self-help groups and voluntary associations to large consumer and producer co-operatives, national voluntary conservation organisations and mutual financial institutions. Not-for-profit organisations are defined through their legal structure and constitutions as being organisations in which:

bulletprofits or surpluses cannot be distributed to members whether on an ongoing basis or upon winding up (except for co-operatives and mutuals where a limited distribution can be made)
bulletthe affairs are governed by a board or council, which is elected periodically by an equal vote of the membership. The organisation is therefore accountable to a wider social grouping than is the case with a private for-profit company or a private trust.

In addition, NfP organisations are characterised by certain values and attributes. For example:

bulletmotivation is derived from a social, cultural or environmental purpose
bulletindependence from government
bulletpersonal and voluntary participation of members
bulletmutual solidarity with other similar organisations
bulleta role in informing and educating its members and, in some cases, a wider public about issues

It should be stressed that NfP organisations are not necessarily non-profit making. The critical issue is that any profits made cannot be distributed to shareholders but are retained by the organisation (or its members in the case of co-operatives and mutuals) in order to further its objectives.

WHO ARE THE NfP LANDOWNING ORGANISATIONS?

This report is concerned with those NfP organisations which own land, lease land, manage land by agreement, or aspire to own land in the Highlands and Islands and who do so as a primary or major part of their activities.

Organisations are included that own significant landholdings (generally in excess of 1 acre). In addition, some organisations are included which, although they may not meet the strict definitions outlined above, aspire to do so through sharing many of the values and attributes of NfP organisations. Such bodies include the Woodland Trust, Clan Donald Lands Trust, Hoy Trust and Hebridean Trust whose membership has no role in the election of their Board or Council (therefore lack a democratic structure) but who nevertheless share all other characteristics of NfP organisations.

A number of such organisations have been set up specifically to purchase or receive gifts of land in the Highlands and Islands. The Stornoway Trust was the first to succeed in a significant way, being gifted 69,000 acres in Lewis in 1923. Earlier, in 1908, the Glendale Estate on Skye was partially transferred to its crofting tenants by the Government’s Congested Districts Board through a 50-year purchase arrangement, which saw the full transfer of the property to the crofters in 1958. Three other crofting communities – Eoligarry 1900 (Barra), Staffin 1904 (Skye) and Syre 1899 (Sutherland) - were also offered similar 50-year purchase arrangements but in 1911 they declined the Board’s offer to purchase the properties in favour of remaining crofting tenants.

The National Trust for Scotland (NTS) embarked on a series of purchases starting in 1931. Most notable were Glencoe and Kintail, which were made possible by the fundraising efforts of mountaineers including the wealthy benefactor Percy Unna. After the war there was a steady expansion of ownership by NTS but few other NfPs were involved. The major expansion came in the late 1970s and 80s when national voluntary conservation organisations such as the RSPB, SWT and JMT began purchasing large areas of land primarily for natural heritage purposes.

In the early 1970s the innovative Clan Donald Lands Trust - a cultural organisation with a global membership - bought from the Clan Donald chief the last remaining 20,000 acres of clan land in the possession of the MacDonald family in the Sleat peninsular of Skye. In 1973 on Hoy in the Orkney Islands the Hoy Trust was being formed to receive a gift of 12,500 acres of land from the owner of Hoy estate.

In 1982 a little reported Strathspey community enterprise - Dalnavert Community Co-operative - was forging a new approach to social ownership. It was the first non-crofting community group in the region to buy land and mange it on a co-operative basis as a club farm. In doing so it was reconnecting with the region's earlier crofting history of club farms of 1820 – 40 and those such as Glendale and Keodale which were established at the beginnings of the 20th Century. Ten years after Dalnavert in the early 1990s crofters again began taking ownership of land - in Assynt (1993), in Borve & Annishader (1993) and more recently in Melness (1994), Bhaltos (1999) and Kylesku (2001).

Wider community-based groups too have become very active. Bodies such as the Laggan Forestry Initiative have emerged with aspirations to own land. Most recently, partnerships or consortia of community-based groups, conservation interests and The Highland Council have been formed and have successfully bought the Isle of Eigg and the Knoydart Estate.

CHANGES SINCE 1996

The NfP sector is significant in the Highlands and Islands (defined as land north of the Highland line and comprising around 10 million acres). Existing NfPs own, lease or manage by agreement 658,308 acres or 6.58 percent of the land area.

This is equivalent to over 65 percent of land owned by the Forestry Commission in the region, two and a half times the area of the Scottish Executive Rural Affairs Department Crofting Estates and almost nine times the land area of Scottish Natural Heritage in the region (see Table 1).

TABLE 1: Comparative areas of land owned, leased or managed by NfP organisations and public bodies
Organisation Acres (approx.) Percent of Highlands and Islands Area
Highlands and Islands Enterprise 10,802 0.11%
Scottish Natural Heritage 75,000 0.75%
SERAD Crofting Estates 270,000 2.70%
NfP Organisations 658,308 6.58%
Forestry Commission 1,080,200 10.80%

 

TABLE 2: Changes in the Ownership, Leasing and Management of Land by NfP Organisations in the Highlands and Islands 1996 – 2001
Extent of land covered by 1996 survey

Corrected acreage for 1996 bodies (+/-)*

Additional bodies omitted from 1996 survey**

506, 864

11, 063

26, 461

Total land owned, leased or managed by NfPs 1996

Area of land added to estates of 1996 bodies

New bodies emerging since 1996

544, 388

92, 198

21, 722

TOTAL 2001

658, 308 ACRES

* this figure accounts for errors in the figures quoted in the 1996 report
** this figure accounts for NFP organisations omitted from the 1996 report but,
which owned, leased or managed land in 1996.

** Organisations added to survey, which existed in 1996 but were omitted from the survey, include:

bulletArdmore Township Grazing Committee (970 acres owned)
bulletEarthshare (16 acres leased)
bulletGlendale Estate (23,000 acres owned)
bulletLochbay Township Grazings Committee (1,575 acres owned)
bulletUpper & Lower Halistra & Hallin Park Grazings Committee (770 acres owned)
bulletUrras Clann Mhicneacail (130 acres owned)

Overall an additional 113,920 acres of land (from 544,388acres to 658,308acres) have become owned, managed or leased since 1996, an increase of 21 percent. This increase is attributable to:

bullet59,128 acres of land being added to the estates of conservation organisations.
bullet33,070 acres of land being successfully acquired, leased or managed by community based groups most of whom only aspired to own such land in 1996.
bullet21,722 acres being acquired by organisations which have emerged since 1996.

The NfP sector has seen growth take place in three specific areas: additional property acquisitions by existing NfP owners; aspiring NfP bodies becoming owners; and the emergence of new NfP organisations. In addition the survey shows that 8 NfPs aspire to own, manage or lease some 39,035acres.

Expanded estates of conservation bodies

bulletRSPB - an extra 27,186 acres (28% increase)
bulletJMT - an extra 16,045 acres (47% increase)
bulletNTS - an extra 15,897 acres (9% increase)

Success in moving from aspirations to purchase or management

bulletAbriachan Forest Trust now own 1,322 acres (and co-manage a further 1,250 acres)
bulletIsle of Eigg Heritage Trust now own 7,400 acres
bulletKnoydart Foundation now own 17,200 acres
bulletLaggan Forest Trust now co-manage 3,000 acres

Expansion of community initiatives

bulletCulag Community Woodland Trust bought an additional 2,898 acres

Emergence of new NfP land owning bodies

With the exception of Kingsburgh Common Grazings (formed in 1920), Keoldale Sheepstock Club (formed in 1926), the Hebridean Trust (formed in 1982), and Plantlife (formed in1989) all the following organisations have been set up since 1996. They are all new to the field of owning, leasing, co-managing or aspiring to own land in the Highlands and Islands. Kingsburgh and Keoldale have, of course, been engaged in co-management as crofting tenants since their formation.

bulletBhaltos Community Trust Ltd.
bulletBirse Community Trust
bulletDunain Community Woodland
bulletEilean Ban Trust
bulletFernaig Community Trust
bulletForres Community Woodlands Trust
bulletHebridean Trust
bulletIsle Martin Trust
bulletKeoldale Sheepstock Club
bulletKingsburgh Common Grazings
bulletKinlochleven Land Development Trust
bulletKylesku Crofters Trust Ltd.
bulletLaid Grazings Committee
bulletMinard Community Woodland Trust
bulletPlantlife
bulletNorth Sutherland Community Forestry Trust
bulletStrathfillan Community Development Trust
bulletStrathglass Woodlands Trust

KEY CHARACTERISTICS

Not-for-Profits range from local organisations with only a few members and negligible turnover to large UK bodies with thousands of members and turnover in the millions. Some of the key characteristics of such organisations are as follows.

Legal Status

A range of legal structures is available for NfP organisations depending on their purpose. Historically, Friendly Societies and Co-operatives were the most common but in recent years more organisations have taken advantage of the flexibility of a company structure under the Companies Acts.

The most common legal structure for NfP landowners in Scotland is the company limited by guarantee with no share capital. This structure allows for the full participation of members who control the company and whose personal liability is limited, usually to under 10. The absence of share capital prevents members benefiting personally from their involvement with the company.

Trusts are set up through a Trust Deed, which sets out the objectives and structure of the trust. It is unusual for a Trust to be a democratic body although this is possible as, for example, in the case of the Stornoway Trust because it is incorporated in Parliament. It is less flexible than a company but this can be of benefit where land is intended to be held in perpetuity for fixed purposes. It should be noted that the word "trust" is often used in the names of organisations which are not legally trusts (e.g. Scottish Wildlife Trust, John Muir Trust, Assynt Crofters' Trust) but which are actually companies without a share capital. The main purpose behind using the word Trust in the company’s name is to convey to the wider public, public agencies and charitable funders that the organisation’s primary purpose is social and/or charitable.

In addition to the legal structure, some NfP organisations enjoy charitable status. In Scotland this is obtained via the Inland Revenue. In England and Wales, charities are registered with the Charity Commissioners.

Of the 46 bodies in this report:

bullet26 are Companies Limited by Guarantee with no Share Capital
bullet9 are Trusts
bullet3 are Companies Limited by Shares
bullet3 are Grazings Committees
bullet2 are yet to be constituted
bullet1 is governed by a Royal Charter and Statutes
bullet1 is a Friendly Society
bullet1 is an Unincorporated club property

Objectives

The objectives of NfP land owning bodies range from:

bulletReligion
bulletEconomic and social development
bulletHeritage conservation
bulletNature conservation
bulletWoodland restoration

Scale

The scale of NfP land ownership varies widely. Some organisations consist of a small number of local people (to whom membership is restricted) whose sole function is to own and manage a local landholding and whose financial turnover is low. At the other end of the scale are organisations with a national (Scottish or UK) scope, owning parcels of land across the country with thousands of members and financial turnover in the millions.

Not-for-Profit Organisations Range FROM:
Urras Clann Mhicneacail 1,200 members 2,000 turnover
Isle Martin Trust 200 members 2,000 turnover
TO:
National Trust for Scotland 236,000 members 25,000,000 turnover
RSPB (UK-wide) 1,011,416 members 49,000,000 turnover

Broadly speaking the smaller organisations tend to have:

bulletsmaller memberships restricted to certain categories (crofting tenants for example)
bulletsmaller landholdings limited to the immediate area of interest
bulletlow turnovers reflecting limited availability of capital and economic opportunities

The larger organisations tend to have:

bulletlarger memberships with eligibility open to anyone
bulletlarger and more numerous landholdings
bullethigh turnovers reflecting large memberships and the ability to attract public and other sources of funds
bulletincome from goods, services, trading companies, and investments and endowments

Land Ownership

Organisations may own a small local area for local community benefit or be national organisations with national objectives owning large areas of land across the country.

Not-for-Profit Landowners Range FROM:
Strathfillan Community Development Trust 17 acres
Dalnavert Community Co-operative Ltd 125 acres
Treslaig & Achaphubuil Crofters 160 acres
TO:
RSPB 96,337 acres
National Trust for Scotland 175,897 acres

CONTEXTUAL CHANGES SINCE 1996

Sector Development

The not-for-profit sector is becoming more mature, complex, diverse, experienced and innovative. In 1996 the contemporary idea of community ownership of land was being fought out against the background of titanic struggles in Eigg and Knoydart. In the intervening period almost everything that could happen to change the context for the sector has changed. The most obvious developments are:

bulletA Scottish Parliament
bulletA political agenda on land reform with a strong emphasis on community including a Draft Land Reform Bill which proposes a community right-to-buy and a crofting community right-to-buy. See Scottish Executive website: www.scotland.gov.uk/landreform
bulletEstablishment of Highlands & Islands Enterprise and Scottish Enterprise Community Land Units
bulletSuccess at Eigg and Knoydart
bulletEmergence of the NfP Landowners Project Group and the publication of 24 Case Studies and the development of a Whole Estate Plan Framework. These can be accessed on: www.caledonia.org.uk/socialland/case.htm and www.caledonia.org.uk/socialland/estates.htm
bulletRapid spread of rural development forestry and Forest Enterprise partnerships
bulletEmergence of the Community Woodland Network supported by Reforesting Scotland
bulletEmergence of the Community Land Action Network (CLAN)
bulletIntroduction of the Transfer of Crofting Estates (Scotland) Act 1997
bulletSignificant growth in the NfP land owning sector
bulletIncreased availability of information and analysis on land ownership and land reform eg
bullete.g. Caledonia Centre for Social Development websites: www.caledonia.org.uk/land and www.caledonia.org.uk/socialland
bulletCLAN (Community Land Action Network) website: www.clag.org
bulletCommunity Woodland Association website: www.community-woods.org.uk
bulletHIE’s Community Land Unit website: www.hie.org.uk/welcome
bulletNfP Landowners Project Group material can be found on: www.caledonia.org.uk/socialland/nfp1.htm
bulletNew methods of communication (websites and email)
bulletGreater co-operation between community and environmental interests
bulletThe establishment of the Scottish Land Fund
bulletPolicy statements on how Public Agencies (e.g. Forest Enterprise, Scottish Natural Heritage Rural Affairs Department Crofting Estates and Crown Estates) and Scottish Landowners Federation members should engage and involve local communities in decision-making have recently been published. These can be accessed on: www.caledonia.org.uk/land/landuse.codes

Such developments have dramatically altered the prospects for communities wishing more say in the way in which land is owned and used to the extent that aspirations to own, lease or co-manage land are now mainstream.

Broader Developments

At the same time as these developments have taken place, other related changes have been taking place.

Following the 1997 General Election, public bodies now have greater freedom to operate in the land market. This is typified by the purchase by HIE of the Orbost Estate on Skye. Significantly, this initiative marked a break with traditional public sector activity in that it actively sought to promote a partnership with the local community (although with mixed success).

There is also a growth in land ownership by private charitable trusts (e.g. the Applecross Trust and the Blair Charitable Trust). These are set up by private landowners with charitable status but are not membership organisations. The forthcoming review of Scottish Charity Law by the McFadden Commission may have implications for such private charities and possibly provide opportunities for communities to have a greater stake in the running of such bodies.

Finally, there are signs that tenant farmers are becoming more active in buying land. The tenant farmers on the Island of Great Cumbrae successfully purchased their farms when the island was put up for sale. Similarly, tenant farmers on the Panmure Estate in Angus have been keen to pursue a tenant farmer buyout. Although such initiatives appear currently to be promoting individual ownership, it might not be long before some co-operative initiatives are pursued in similar circumstances.

Focus on Management

A significant development since 1996 has been the growth in co-management initiatives between local communities and Forest Enterprise. One new example (Minard) is included in this survey together with the older Laggan initiative but there are now a growing number of such projects running across Scotland. The Forestry Commission has set up a Forestry for People Panel to explore ways of improving the level of community involvement in forestry. Inevitably there will be continued demands from some quarters for full-scale ownership as exemplified by the aspirations of the North Sutherland Community Forest Trust.

A Re-Evaluation of History

The Glendale Estate is included in this review having been omitted from the 1996 review. Glendale has often seemed to get dismissed rather readily in discussions of crofting and community ownership. Part of the reason for this is because of the perception that the share-ownership model of ownership has failed. Each shareholder has been free to sell their share (which comprises a house, a croft, a share in the common grazings and a share in the club property). Some crofting activists have argued that the structure of the Glendale crofting community has broken down. However when examined in a wider context what has happened in Glendale is exactly the same as has happened in many other crofting communities following the 1976 Crofting Act except that croft ownership happened some 68 years earlier. What crofting activists have failed to grasp is that Glendale has in fact been in a stronger position to ensure that its common grazings and club property are collectively run because they cannot be sold independent of the house and croft. In addition Glendale has enabled crofters to sell up and for newcomers to gain entry. In many ways this is similar to communities such as Birse, Stornoway, and Eigg which are made up of local residents. Some people sell their home and move out and others buy them and move in. Such a model may be inappropriate for a pure crofting trust but may be perfectly satisfactory for a community trust.

The historical context is also being brought to the fore by the efforts of the Birse Community in reviving ancient commonty rights. Across Scotland these rights still exist but are seldom recognised or actively managed. Similarly the Forres Community Woodlands Trust, who own former Common Good Fund land, reminds us that Municipal mutualism once flourished and that some of these assets are still held in trust for the community (sometime quite profitably as in the case of the Dornoch Firth Mussel Fishery run by the Tain Common Good Fund and Highland Council). Suggestions that the eastern part of the Cuillin on Skye might be a Crown common also highlight the possible implications for community land management of ancient common rights.

THE FUTURE

The Not-for-Profit Sector is undergoing a period of very active growth and development. New legislation on community and crofting right-to-buy together with greater openness by public agencies to joint or co-management is likely to increase the scope for the sector to become involved in the management of land assets.

For the dramatic successes of recent years to be consolidated and extended the sector requires:

bulletcontinued support for learning, training and mutual assistance;
bulleta practical and workable legislative framework to facilitate the expansion of land assets;
bulletresearch to advance understanding; and
bulletincreased legitimacy within the broad range of land owning structures present in Scotland.

As the sector matures it will increasingly be faced with the challenge of deciding how to retain momentum, create innovation, improve performance and support weaker NfP members. To do this it will increasingly have to work towards devising approaches, which create the conditions for coalition-building and fight against the forces, which seek fragmentation. Social movements in many different places and at differing times have had to grapple with these societal tendencies. In Scotland it has been no different. Older NfPs have struggled in isolation and with limited resources for many decades. That they have survived is testimony to their determination and perseverance in the face of indifference and in some instances hostility. Currently community ownership is a fashionable idea but fashions change like the seasons and the NfP sector will need to be capable of withstanding and adapting to these changes. To do this the sector needs to begin seeking out how other sister social land movements in other countries have confronted and overcome these challenges. The Trust for Public Land and the Land Trust Alliance in the United States and other social land movements in Europe could provide the sector with a useful set of road maps for the journey ahead.

SUMMARY OF KEY NfP LANDOWNING FEATURES

In this section a summary of the key features of the NfP landowning sector is provided in table format. It covers the following three areas:

bulletLegal Structure and Charitable Status
bulletMembership Levels and Financial Turnover
bulletLand Ownership

Table 3: Legal Structure and Charitable Status

  NfP Organisation Year
Formed
Legal Status Charitable
Status
1 Abriachan Forest Trust 1996 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
2 Assynt Crofters’ Trust 1992 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital No
3 Bhaltos Community Trust Ltd 1998 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital No
4 Birse Community Trust 1999 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
5 Borve & Annishader Township Ltd 1993 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital No
6 Church of Scotland General Trustees 1921 Trust Yes
7 Clan Donald Lands Trust 1972 Trust Yes
8 Common Grazings for Ardmore Township N/a Trust N/a
9 Culag Community Woodland Trust Ltd 1995 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
10 Dalnavert Community Co-operative Ltd 1982 Company Ltd by Shares without a share a capital No
11 Dunain Community Woodland 2000 Not yet constituted N/a
12 Earthshare 1994 Company Ltd by Shares No
13 Fernaig Community Trust 1998 Company Ltd by Shares without a share a capital N/a
14 Forres Community Woodlands Trust 1999 Company Ltd by Shares without a share a capital Yes
15 Geary Common Grazings Committee 1980 Trust No
16 Glendale Crofters Estate 1908 Unincorporated Club property No
17 Highland Renewal 1994 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
18 Hoy Trust 1973 Trust Yes
19 Isle Martin Trust 1998 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
20 Isle of Eigg Heritage Trust 1996 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
21 John Muir Trust 1983 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
22 Keodale Sheepstock Club 1926 Friendly Society No
23 Kingsburgh Common Grazings 1920 Grazings Committee No
24 Kinlochleven Land Development Trust 1996 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
25 Knoydart Foundation 1995 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
26 Kylesku Crofters Trust Ltd 2000 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital No
27 Laggan Forestry Trust 1998 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
28 Laid Grazings Commiteee 1998 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital No
29 Melness Crofters Estate 1994 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital No
30 Minard Community Woodland Trust 1999 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
31 National Trust for Scotland 1931 Trust formed by Statue Yes
32 North Sutherland Community Forestry Trust 2000 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital No
33 Plantlife 1989 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
34 RSFS Forest Trust Company 1995 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
35 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds 1889 Incorporated by Royal Charter & Statutes Yes
36 Scottish Wildlife Trust 1964 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
37 Stornoway Trust 1923 Trust formed by Statue Yes
38 Strathfillan Community Development Trust 1997 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
39 Strathglass Woodlands Trust 1999 Not Yet constituted N/a
40 The Eilean Ban Trust N/a Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital N/a
41 The Hebridean Trust 1982 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
42 The Woodland Trust 1972 Company Ltd by Guarantee without a share a capital Yes
43 Treslaig & Achaphubuil Crofters (Woodland) Trust Ltd 1994 Company Ltd by Shares No
44 Trustees for Common Grazings Committee for Lochbay Township N/a Trust N/a
45 Trustees for Common Grazings for the Townships of Upper & Lower Halistra & Hallin Park N/a Trust N/a
46 Urras Clann Mhicneacail 1984 Trust No

Table 4: Membership Levels and Financial Turnover

  NfP Organisation Number of
Members
Membership Eligibility Annual
Turnover
1 Abriachan Forest Trust 70 Residents of Abriachan Parish 300,000
2 Assynt Crofters’ Trust 127 Registered crofters in 13 Townships 25,000
3 Bhaltos Community Trust Ltd 98 All residents on the estate & crofting tenants who live in Lewis 4,652
4 Birse Community Trust 560 Residents of Parish of Birse 70,000
5 Borve & Annishader Township Ltd 18 Crofters and others resident on Estate 1,250
6 Church of Scotland General Trustees 35 Minister and elders of the Church of Scotland 300,000
7 Clan Donald Lands Trust 800 Open 875,000
8 Common Grazings for Ardmore Township N/a N/a N/a
9 Culag Community Woodland Trust Ltd 70 Resident of Parish of Assynt or with special interest in the area 14,000
10 Dalnavert Community Co-operative Ltd 7 Residents of Dalnavert and by invitation 25,000
11 Dunain Community Woodland 60 N/a N/a
12 Earthshare 180 Open 45,743
13 Fernaig Community Trust 55 Adults in Stromeferry Community Council area N/a
14 Forres Community Woodlands Trust 32 Adults residing in Moray & local organisations who support the Trust’s objects N/a
15 Geary Common Grazings Committee 21 Registered crofters with a share in the common grazings 1,050
16 Glendale Crofters Estate 147 Registered crofters on the Estate N/a
17 Highland Renewal 63 Open N/a
18 Hoy Trust 10 By invitation 17,340
19 Isle Martin Trust 200 Residents of the Parish of Loch Broom & Coigach and others 2,000
20 Isle of Eigg Heritage Trust 9 Representative of Isle of Eigg (4); Highland Council (2); Scottish Wildlife Trust (2) & a co-opted independent Chairperson 215,705
21 John Muir Trust 7,600 Open 800,000
22 Keodale Sheepstock Club 43 Registered crofters on the Estate N/a
23 Kingsburgh Common Grazings 7 Registered crofters with a share in the common grazings N/a
24 Kinlochleven Land Development Trust 4 founding subscribers Representatives of the founding subscribers nominate 6 directors to run the company – Lochaber Ltd (2 directors), British Alcan (1 director), Highland Council (2 directors) and Kinlochleven village (1 director). N/a
25 Knoydart Foundation 6 Knoydart Community Association; Highland Council; Chris Brasher Trust; Highlands & Islands Enterprise; John Muir Trust; & Kilchoan Estate 50,000
26 Kylesku Crofters Trust Ltd 6 Registered crofters and others by invitation N/a
27 Laggan Forestry Trust 108 Residents of Parish of Laggan N/a
28 Laid Grazings Commiteee 18 Registered crofters with a share in the common grazings N/a
29 Melness Crofters Estate 60 Registered crofters on the estate N/a
30 Minard Community Woodland Trust 52 Residents in West Loch Fyne Community Council area 4,290
31 National Trust for Scotland 236,000 Open 25million
32 North Sutherland Community Forestry Trust 324 All adults resident in the Parishes of Durness, Tongue & Farr N/a
33 Plantlife 11,000 Open 2million
34 RSFS Forest Trust Company 130 Members of the Royal Scottish Forestry Society 1million
35 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds 1,011,416 Open 49million
36 Scottish Wildlife Trust 18,000 Open 2.9million
37 Stornoway Trust 13,000 Residents of Stornoway Parish who are on the Electoral Register 320,000
38 Strathfillan Community Development Trust 110 All individuals who have their main residence (at least 6 months of year) in Strathfillan 99,000
39 Strathglass Woodlands Trust 5 All persons resident in Parish of Kiltarlity & Kilmorack N/a
40 The Eilean Ban Trust N/a N/a N/a
41 The Hebridean Trust 4 N/a 583,934
42 The Woodland Trust 75,000 Open 16million
43 Treslaig & Achaphubuil Crofters (Woodland) Trust Ltd 8 Registered crofters in Treslaig and Achaphubuil townships N/a
44 Trustees for Common Grazings Committee for Lochbay Township N/a Registered crofters with a share in the common grazings N/a
45 Trustees for Common Grazings for the Townships of Upper & Lower Halistra & Hallin Park N/a Registered crofters with a share in the common grazings N/a
46 Urras Clann Mhicneacail 1,200 Any clan member or relative 2,000
         
 

TOTALS

1,376,663   99,655,964

Table 5: Land Ownership

  NfP Organisation Acres
Owned
Acres
Leased
Acres
Managed
Acres
Aspired
Status in relation to the 1996 NfP Profile
1 Abriachan Forest Trust 1,322   1,250   1996 NfP Entry
Expansion
2 Assynt Crofters’ Trust 21,300       1996 NfP Entry
No change
3 Bhaltos Community Trust Ltd 1,705       New Entry
4 Birse Community Trust 2 38 10,242   New Entry
5 Borve & Annishader Township Ltd 4,596       1996 NfP Entry
No change
6 Church of Scotland General Trustees 15,000 14,950     1996 NfP Entry
No change
7 Clan Donald Lands Trust 20,000       1996 NfP Entry
No Change
8 Common Grazings for Ardmore Township 970       New Entry
Missing 1996
9 Culag Community Woodland Trust Ltd 2,898 89     1996 NfP Entry
Expansion
10 Dalnavert Community Co-operative Ltd 125       1996 NfP Entry
No change
11 Dunain Community Woodland       12 New Entry
12 Earthshare   16     1996 NfP Entry
No change
13 Fernaig Community Trust 110   4,000   New Entry
14 Forres Community Woodlands Trust 40   32   New Entry
15 Geary Common Grazings Committee 970       1996 NfP Entry
No change
16 Glendale Crofters Estate 23,000       New Entry
Missing 1996
17 Highland Renewal   1,544     1996 NfP Entry
No change
18 Hoy Trust 12,500       1996 NfP Entry
No change
19 Isle Martin Trust 395       New Entry
20 Isle of Eigg Heritage Trust 7,400       1996 NfP Entry
Expansion
21 John Muir Trust 50,445       1996 NfP Entry
Expansion
22 Keodale Sheepstock Club       27,260 New Entry
23 Kingsburgh Common Grazings       504 New Entry
24 Kinlochleven Land Development Trust       1,000 New Entry
Missing 1996
25 Knoydart Foundation 17,200       1996 NfP Entry
Expansion
26 Kylesku Crofters Trust Ltd   800     New Entry
27 Laggan Forestry Trust     3,000   1996 NfP Entry
Expansion
28 Laid Grazings Commiteee       2,300 New Entry
29 Melness Crofters Estate 10,773       1996 NfP Entry
No change
30 Minard Community Woodland Trust     420   New Entry
31 National Trust for Scotland 175,897       1996 NfP Entry
Expansion
32 North Sutherland Community Forestry Trust       7,413 New Entry
33 Plantlife 3,373       New Entry
34 RSFS Forest Trust Company 3,019       1996 NfP Entry
No change
35 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds 96,337 12,921 15,551   1996 NfP Entry
Expansion
36 Scottish Wildlife Trust 23,519 167 15,292   1996 NfP Entry
No change
37 Stornoway Trust 69,400       1996 NfP Entry
No change
38 Strathfillan Community Development Trust 17 210 11 131 New Entry
39 Strathglass Woodlands Trust       415 New Entry
40 The Eilean Ban Trust   6     New Entry
41 The Hebridean Trust 321       New Entry
42 The Woodland Trust 12,500       1996 NfP Entry
No change
43 Treslaig & Achaphubuil Crofters (Woodland) Trust Ltd 160       1996 NfP Entry
No change
44 Trustees for Common Grazings Committee for Lochbay Township 1,575       New Entry
issing 1996
45 Trustees for Common Grazings for the Townships of Upper & Lower Halistra & Hallin Park 770       New Entry
issing 1996
46 Urras Clann Mhicneacail 130       New Entry
issing 1996
             
 

TOTALS

577,769 30,741 49,798 39,035  

The NfP Organisational Profiles 1996 and 2001 provides additional details and sources of information on each organisation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This report was commissioned by Highlands and Islands Enterprise Community Land Unit in partnership with Scottish Natural Heritage as part of the preparations for the Not-for-Profit Landowners Project Group Seminar in Plockton on 27-28 April 2001.

As authors we are grateful to all the individuals who took the time to assist in gathering details about the not-for-profit land sector.

Thanks go to:

Claire Belshaw, Alexander Bennett, Duncan Bryden, Pamela Burnside, Robin Callander, Eoghan Carmichael, Alan W Cowe, Alastair Cunningham, Margaret Davidson, Angela Douglas, Michael Foxley, Ellanne Fraser, Maggie Fyffe, Nigel Hawkins, Trish Haworth, Robert Hollingdale, Andrew Little, Euan MacAlpine, Anna MacConnell, Peter Macdonald, Iain Maciver, Norman MacKinnon, Hugh MacLellan, Rhona Macleod, Peter Mayhew, Bill Middlemiss, Alaistar Nicolson, Jan Nicolson, Roy Osborne, Ian Rees, Wilma Robertson, Scott Russell, Michael Scott, Neal Stephenson, John Toal, Fabio Villani, Angela Williams and Sue Wylie.

REFERENCES

Wightman, A. (1996), Not-for-profit Landowning Organisations in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. Organisational Profiles. Report prepared for Highlands and Islands Enterprise and Scottish Natural Heritage, Inverness.

FURTHER INFOMATION

Further information on individual NfP organisations can be found in the documents – NfP Organisational Profiles 1996 and 2001